From Slavery to Freedom

My third great grandfather Henry Christian was born into slavery in Mason County, Kentucky in 1839. When he was about ten years old he and his older sister, Marguerite, accompanied their parents on the treacherous journey to freedom in Canada. After several months traveling the Underground Railroad, the young Christian family made it to Detroit and then to Sandwich, Ontario. The small town of Sandwich, just outside Windsor, was a haven for refugee slaves fleeing the United States. Hundreds of slaves crossed the Detroit River into Windsor, and their first stop was the Colored Baptist Church on Peter Street. My ancestors joined this church and in fact, the record of deacons and trustees includes the name of my fourth great grandfather, Charles Christian.

Originally built as a log cabin in 1820, the church was rebuilt in 1841 by free and fugitive slaves. Several still visible holes in the floor provided hiding places for those being sought by bounty hunters. Now known as Sandwich First Baptist Church, it is the oldest Black church in Windsor.

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church plaque

The Christian family settled on a farm on Huron Line, near Malden Road. Later, they moved into the Town of Sandwich, residing on Sandwich Street. (Sandwich Street is now named Watkins Street after another Black pioneer.)

Sandwich Street

As a young man my third great grandfather, Henry Christian, found work with the Great Western Railway, which later became the Michigan Central. While working in Toronto, Henry met Ann Wilson, a young woman from Lancashire, England. They married in Toronto, and Henry brought her home to a farm in Anderton Township, Essex County.

Henry and Ann had seven children, among them my great grandmother, Susan Christian.

 

The Christians

I love exploring the history of the Shaws and the Pinkertons – my grandmother Nolie’s people – and I know that there are many more stories to tell. I very much want to dig deeper into my Scottish past – I feel like those Scottish calico dyers have a lot more to tell me!

And I continue to be fascinated by Margaret Pinkerton – did she really emigrate alone, leaving that seemingly functional and happy family behind? Why? There were many reasons to leave Scotland for Canada at that point – poverty, employment, education — but why did she leave her entire extended family who seemed to have resources, employment and connections?  I continue to search immigration records, but so far, I don’t even have a hint.

But now I want to take a look at my grandfather’s people – the Christians and the Gees. J. Ronald’s mother, Susan Christian Gee, if not the most interesting twig on the tree, was certainly the most surprising to me! But before we learn about Susan, let’s start with her parents.

Some time prior to the Civil War, there was a slave owning family by the name of Sauer residing in Mason County, Kentucky. They were of German descent, and this name is still fairly common on both sides of the Ohio River in southern Ohio and northern Kentucky.

In 1845, one of the Sauer family slaves caught wind of the fact that the Sauer family was going to sell off some “human property.” This woman’s name was Susan, and she was my third great grandmother. Fearing that her young family would be split up, Susan and her husband Charles, prepared to run away with their children. Dressed in extra layers of clothing, they took off on their way to freedom. (Enslaved people often ran away in the winter as their owners were less attuned to their slaves’ whereabouts during non-planting and non-harvesting seasons. Furthermore, it was more difficult for the dogs to trace their scent in the winter months.) On the run through the Underground Railroad with his parents was my great great grandfather, Henry Christian, about ten years old.

I like to think that I was always aware of, and certainly interested in, the Underground Railroad, perhaps because I have so often lived in its shadow, such as Pittsford Village and the Michigan Avenue African American Corridor in Buffalo which I travel every day. But it’s another thing entirely to acknowledge that my very own flesh and blood – my very own great great grandfather – actually made this treacherous journey.  I am in awe of the courage that this young family.